Already Russia’s proven oil and gas reserves are the world’s biggest

Russian exports of crude oil and petroleum products during the first half of August rose to almost 5m b/d. Total exports from the former Soviet Union   then averaged 5.99m b/d. FSU exports could reach 14m b/d by 2015 and thus challenge the Persian Gulf .

Already Russia’s proven oil and gas reserves are the world’s biggest and about 15% larger than those of Saudi Arabia

oil and gas producers have discussed a bloc that could become a rival to OPEC

If its political and legal climate and the economy improve as foreign investors hope, Russia could regain its position as the biggest oil producer in the world. It could become the world’s biggest exporter of oil before the end of this decade, already being the biggest exporter of gas (see oil & gas exports in Part 3).

Russia has more than 250 undeveloped fields. One field considered by US majors at Bovanenko, in northern Siberia, contains 155 TCF See Trenton Computer Festival. of gas – roughly the same as the entire USA. The west Siberian field Zapolyarnoye has 3.5 TCM (1) (Trellis-Coded Modulation/Viterbi Decoding) A technique that adds forward error correction to a modulation scheme by adding an additional bit to each baud. TCM is used with QAM modulation, for example. (125 TCF), almost as much as the Norwegian and UK North Sea reserves combined. Oilfields in the far north or in the far eastern island region of Sakhalin offered to foreign companies have potentials more than twice the entire oil reserves in the Western Hemisphere

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